Thursday, December 5, 2013

Wearing the cloth below the ancles

" In The Name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful "


Praise be to Allaah. 

What your friend has told you is true. Many ahaadeeth were reported from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) which forbid isbaal (wearing one’s clothes below the ankles), for example:

Al-Bukhaari reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "Whatever of the izaar (lower garment) is below the ankles is in the Fire." [Al-Bukhaari, no. 5787]

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "There are three whom Allaah will not look at or praise on the Day of Judgement and theirs will be a painful punishment: the one who wears his garment below his ankles, the one who reminds others of his favours, and the one who sells his product by means of making false oaths" [Reported by Muslim, no. 106]

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "Isbaal (wearing one’s garment below the ankles) may apply to the izaar (lower garment), the shirt or the turban. Whoever allows any part of these to trail on the ground out of arrogance, Allaah will not look at him on the Day of Judgement."
[reported by Abu Dawud, no. 4085, and al-Nisaa’i, no. 5334, with a saheeh isnaad].

Ibn ‘Abbaas reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "Allaah will not look at the one who wears his lower garment below his ankles."
[Reported by al-Nisaa’i in al-Mujtabaa, Kitaab al-Zeenah, Baab Isbaal al-Izaar].

Hudhayfah said: "The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) took hold of the muscle of my calf (or his calf) and said, ‘This is where the izaar should stop; if you insist, it may be lower, but it should not reach the ankles.’"
[Reported by al-Tirmidhi, who said this is a saheeh hasan hadeeth; see Sunan al-Tirmidhi, no. 1783]

All of the ahaadeeth quoted above speak against isbaal, whether or not the intention is to show off; but if a person does this deliberately out of arrogance, there is no doubt that his sin is greater. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "Allaah will not look at the one who trails his izaar on the ground out of pride." [Al-Bukhaari, no. 5788]

Jaabir ibn Sulaym said: "The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to me: ‘Beware of wearing one’s lower garment below the ankles, because this is a kind of showing-off, and Allaah does not love showing-off.’"
[Regarded as saheeh by al-Tirmidhi, no. 2722].

No one is able to be completely free of pride and arrogance, even if he claims that this is so. Such a claim is unacceptable, because by saying it, he is praising himself. Only in the case of those whom the wahy (revelation) testified that they were free of pride do we believe that this is the case. For example, there is a hadeeth which states that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "Whoever trails his garment on the ground out of pride, Allaah will not look at him on the Day of Resurrection." Abu Bakr said to him, "O Messenger of Allaah, my izaar slips down if I do not pay attention to it." He said: "You are not one of those who do it out of pride."
[Reported by al-Bukhaari, no. 5784]

What indicates that isbaal is prohibited even if it is not done out of pride is the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri, may Allaah be pleased with him, who said: "The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘The lower garment of the Muslim should come down to mid-calf, but there is nothing wrong if it is between that point and the ankles. Whatever is lower than the ankles is in the Fire. Whoever trails his garment on the ground out of pride, Allaah will not look at him."
[Reported by Abu Dawud, no. 4093, with a saheeh isnaad.]

These ahaadeeth describe two different deeds, for which there will be two different punishments:
Imaam Ahmad reported that Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Ya’qoob said: "I asked Abu Sa’eed: ‘Did you hear anything from the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) concerning the izaar (lower garment)?’ he said, ‘Yes, listen! ‘The izaar of the believer should come to mid-calf, although there is nothing wrong if it comes between there and the ankles, but whatever is lower than the ankles is in the Fire,’ and he said it three times."

Ibn ‘Umar said: "I passed by the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and my izaar had slipped down.
He said, ‘O ‘Abdullaah, pull up your izaar!’ so
I pulled it up.
He said, ‘More!’ so
I pulled it up more, and always made sure it was pulled up properly after that."
Some people asked, "To where did you pull it up?"
He said, "To mid-calf length."
[Reported by Muslim, no. 2086; al-Dhahabi, Kitaab al-Kabaa’ir, 131-132]

The issue of isbaal applies to women just as much as it applies to men. This is indicated by the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him, who said: "The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘Whoever trails his garment on the ground out of pride, Allaah will not look at him.’ Umm Salamah said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah, what should women do with their hems?’ He said, ‘Let them go down a handspan.’ She asked, ‘What if their feet show?’ He said, ‘Let them lengthen it by a cubit, but no more.’"
[al-Nisaa'i, Kitaab al-zeenah, Baab dhuyool al-nisaa’].

The punishment for showing off may come to pass in this world, not in the Hereafter. Abu Hurayrah reported that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "Whilst a man was walking arrogantly admiring himself and his clothes, Allaah caused the earth to swallow him and he is suffering in it until the Day of Resurrection."
[Reported by Muslim, no. 2088].

Wednesday, December 4, 2013

The Jinn Race-The Story of the Devil

" In The Name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful"
All about Jinn everyone must know

Throughout history man has always had a deep attraction for the supernatural and the unseen. The existence of a world parallel to our own has always fascinated people. This world is commonly referred to as the spirit world, and almost every set of people have some concept of one. With some people, these spirits are no more then the souls of dead people- or ghosts. With others, spirits are either the forces of good or the forces of evil - both battling against one another to gain influence over humanity. However, both of these explanations are more in tune with folk tales and fantasy. The true explanation of such a world comes from Islam. Like every other way, Islam also claims to explain this realm of the unseen. It is from this realm that Islam explains to us about the world of the Jinn. The Islamic explanation of the Jinn provides us with so many answers to modem day mysteries. Without the knowledge of this world, the Muslims would become like the non-Muslims and be running around looking for any old answer to come their way. So, who or what are the Jinn?


The Jinn are beings created with free will, living on earth in a world parallel to mankind. The Arabic word Jinn is from the verb 'Janna' which means to hide or conceal. Thus, they are physically invisible from man as their description suggests. This invisibility is one of the reasons why some people have denied their existence. However, (as will be seen) the affect which the world of the Jinn has upon our world, is enough to refute this modern denial of one of Allah's creation. The origins of the Jinn can be traced from the Qur'an and the Sunnah. Allah says:

"Indeed We created man from dried clay of black smooth mud. And We created the Jinn before that from the smokeless flame of fire" (Surah Al-Hijr 15:26-27)

Thus the Jinn were created before man. As for their physical origin, then the Prophet (saws) has confirmed the above verse when he said: "The Angels were created from light and the Jinn from smokeless fire" 

[1]. It is this description of the Jinn which tells us so much about them. Because they were created from fire, their nature has generally been fiery and thus their relationship with man has been built upon this. Like humans, they too are required to worship Allah and follow Islam. Their purpose in life is exactly the same as ours, as Allah says:

"I did not create the Jinn and mankind except to worship Me" (Surah Ad-Dhariyat 51:56)

Jinns can thus be Muslims or non-Muslims. However, due to their fiery nature the majority of them are non-Muslims. All these non-Muslim Jinns form a part of the army of the most famous Jinn, Iblis- the Shaytan

[2]. Consequently, these disbelieving Jinns are also called Shaytans (devils). As for the Jinns who become Muslims, then the first of them did so in the time of the Prophet (saws) when a group of them were amazed by the recitation of the Qur'an. Allah orders the Prophet to tell the people of this event:

"Say (O' Muhammed): It has been revealed to me that a group of Jinn listened and said; 'Indeed we have heard a marvellous Qur'an. It guides unto righteousness so we have believed in it, and we will never make partners with our lord'"(Surah Al-Jinn 72:1-2)

In many aspects of their world, the Jinn are very similar to us. They eat and drink, they marry, have children and they die. The life span however, is far greater then ours. Like us, they will also be subject to a Final Reckoning by Allah the Most High. They will be present with mankind on the Day of Judgement and will either go to Paradise or Hell.


That which clearly distinguishes the Jinn from mankind, are their powers and abilities. Allah has given them these powers as a test for them. If they oppress others with them, then they will be held accountable. By knowing of their powers, we can often make sense of much of the mysteries which go on around us. One of the powers of the Jinn, is that they are able to take on any physical form they like. Thus, they can appear as humans, animals trees and anything else. Over the last few years the interest in the subject of aliens and UFO's has become heightened. Programmes such as the X-files and the Outer limits have increased the popularity of the theory that aliens exist. Thousands of people have sighted strange looking creatures all over the world. These sightings however, have still not proven substantially that aliens exist. Rather - and it seems more plausible all the sightings of such creatures were just Jinns parading in different forms. So the next time you see something that looks like E.T, its most probably just a wicked Jinn trying to scare and confuse you!

The ability to possess and take over the minds and bodies of other creatures is also a power which the Jinn have utilised greatly over the centuries. This however, is something which has been prohibited to them as it is a great oppression to possess another being. Human possession is something which has always brought about great attention. But the true knowledge of this subject is rare amongst the people. Over the last 3 decades the subject of possession has become very commercialised. During the 70's films such as The Exorcist and Rosemary's Baby were used to educate people about possession. However, because such institutions (the film industry) were heavily influenced by Christianity, knowledge of the subject was non-existent. Rather then educate people about Jinn possession, films such as The Exorcist just tended to scare the living daylights out of us!

[3]. Only through Islam can we understand such a phenomena. We know as Muslims, that Jinns possess people for many reasons. Sometimes it is because the Jinn or its family has been hurt accidentally. It could be because the Jinn has fallen in love with the person. However, most of the time possession occurs because the Jinn is simply malicious and wicked. For this reason we have been told by the Prophet (saws) not to loiter in those places where the Jinns reside, e.g. graveyards, ruins, deserts, market places etc. We have also been commanded to recite the Qur'an frequently in our houses as the Prophet (saws) said: "Indeed, the shaytan flees from the house in which Surah Al-Baqarah (the 2nd chapter of the Qur'an) is recited"

[4]. If a person does become possessed, then the name of Allah has to be used in expelling the Jinn. If we look at the practice of the Prophet and his companions, we find many duas (supplications) to exorcise the Jinn. All these duas invoke Allah to help the possessed person. How contrary this is to many modern-day exorcists. Many exorcists, Muslim and non-Muslim, often invoke the names of others besides Allah to exorcise the Jinn

[5]. When the Jinn does leave, these people believe that their way was successful. However, this is a ploy of the Jinn, as it knows that if it obeys the exorcist, then it has succeeded in making him worship others besides Allah i.e. commit shirk. The Jinn often returns when the exorcist leaves, as it knows that nothing except the words of Allah can stop it from oppressing others.

It is not only humans which are possessed, but also animals, trees and other objects. By doing this, the evil Jinn hope to make people worship others besides Allah. The possession of idols is one way to do this. Not so long ago the world-wide phenomenon of Hindu idols drinking milk, shocked the world. From Bombay to London, Delhi to California, countless idols were lapping up milk. Ganesh

[6]. the elephant god, Hanuman the monkey god and even Shiva lingam, the male private organ(!),
all seemed to guzzle down the milk as if there was no tomorrow! Unfortunately people were taken in by this (including Muslims) and many flocked to feed (?)
the Hindu gods. Anyone who knows about Jinn possession, will undoubtedly know that this is a classic attempt to make people commit shirk. And it worked, as many people started to worship these lifeless pieces of wood and marble. Anyone with half a brain would say to themselves, 'why on earth does a god need to be fed?!!
Surely if Ganesh, Hanuman or Shiva were divine then they wouldn't need feeding?'
However, such common sense seemed to be lacking as the Jinns played havoc with these gullible people.

The Occult

Through their powers of flying and invisibility, the Jinn are the chief component in occult activities. Voodoo, Black magic, Poltergeists, Witchcraft and Mediums can all be explained through the world of the Jinn. Likewise, so can the illusions and feats of magicians. Because the Jinn can traverse huge distances over a matter of seconds, their value to magicians is great. In return for helping them in their magic, the Jinns often ask for the magicians to sell their souls to them and even to Iblis. Thus the magicians take the Jinn and Iblis as lords besides Allah. In our day, some of the feats performed by magicians and entertainers are without doubt from the assistance of the Jinn.

One of the most frequent activities associated with the Jinn, is fortune telling. Before the advent of the Prophet (saws) fortune-tellers and soothsayers were wide spread. These people would use their associates from the Jinn to find out about the future. The Jinns would go to the lowest heaven and listen to the Angels conversing amongst themselves about events of the Future which they heard from Allah. The Jinns would then inform the fortune-tellers. This is why before the time of the Prophet (saws) many fortune-tellers were very accurate in their predictions. However, upon the Prophet's arrival the heavens were guarded intensely by the Angels, and any Jinn who tried to listen was attacked by meteors (shooting stars):

"And We have guarded it (the heavens) from every accursed devil, except one who is able to snatch a hearing and he is pursued by a brightly burning flame"(Surah Al-Hijr 15:18)

The Prophet (saws) also said: "They (the Jinn) would pass the information back down until it reaches the lips of a magician or forrtune-teller Sometimes a meteor would overtake them before they could pass it on. If they passed it on before being struck, they would add to it a hundred lies"

[9]. Thus, it is clear from this as to how fortune-tellers get predictions of the future right. It is also evident as to why they get so many wrong. Men like Nostradamus

[10]. are an example, as some of his predictions of the future were correct whilst many were completely wrong. Unfortunately, the amount of fortune telling which occurs amongst the Muslims is also increasing. By visiting Muslim lands such as Morocco, one is able to see as to how much inter Jinn-fortune-teller activity there really is. If you look up at the sky on a clear night in Morocco, you will see the heavens ablaze with shooting stars! A clear display of the devils being chased away from the heavens.

Fortune-tellers also operate through the Qareen. The Qareen is the Jinn companion which is assigned to every human being. It is this Jinn which whispers to our base desires and constantly tries to divert us from righteousness. The Prophet (saws) said: "Everyone of you has been assigned a companion from the Jinn. The companions asked: Even you O' Messenger of Allah? And the Prophet replied: Even me, except that Allah has helped me against him and he has submitted. Now he only tells me to do good"

[11]. Because the Qareen is with a person all his life, it knows all that has happened to the person from the cradle to the grave. By making contact with the Qareen, the fortune-teller is thus able to make out that it is he who knows about the person. He looks in his crystal ball or the palm of a person and proceeds to amaze him with knowledge which no one else knows

[12]. The severity of going to a fortune-teller is such that the Prophet (saws) said: "The prayer of one who approaches a fortune-teller and asks him about anything, will not be accepted for forty days or nights"

[13]. and: "Whosoever approaches a fortune-teller and believes in what he says, has disbelieved in what was revealed to Muhammed"

[14]. The effects of the Jinn are not just limited to fortune-tellers. Other activities such as oujia boards and seances, which are used to contact the dead, are manipulated by the Jinn. 'Are you there Charlie?
Speak to us Charlie!!' are the sort of words spoken by anxious relatives (names are obviously different!) seeking to make contact with their loved ones. And it is when the Jinn starts to talk and communicate as 'Charlie', that the people are truly fooled

[15]. One of the biggest manipulations of the Jinn is through visions. Through these visions the Jinns are more likely to lead people away from the worship of Allah then any other way. When a person sees a vision in front of his eyes it is something which is very hard to explain away. Only by having knowledge of the world of the Jinn and conviction in Allah, can a person fight such a trial. The countless numbers of visions of Jesus Christ and the Virgin Mary over the centuries has been a popular choice for the devils. It almost seems as if leading Christians astray is the most easiest trick for the Jinns! Not only are Christians fooled by these visions, but often the Jinns possess and begin to talk from their voices. To the Christians this is known as the tongues of the Angels and thus a proof for their faith. However, the amount of unintelligible nonsense and rubbish which is heard is a clear proof that this is in fact the tongues of the devils! For other people, visions of their parents or relatives are commonplace. By taking on the form of peoples parents, the Jinns can convince people that the souls of dead people still mix with the people of the earth. This is why so many people believe in ghosts.

The onslaught of satanic visions has also hit the Muslims. Many Muslims claim to have seen visions of the Prophet Muhammed (saws) and even Allah! By doing this, Shaytan is able to lead astray the weak Muslims. Through such visions, Muslims are often told that the commands of Islam are not applicable to them. The Jinns tell them that Prayer, Fasting, Hajj etc. are not obligatory for them. It is a great deception and unfortunately one which has been very effective. The extent of satanic visions still continues to this day. The recent death of Diana Princess of Wales sparked off great love and adoration for this woman. In fact the grief of the British people was such, that it was as if Diana was something divine. No sooner had the mourning of Diana reached its peak, that visions of her were already being seen at Hampton Court Palace! If these visions did occur, the desire of Iblis and his army of Jinn to capitalise on this event, was evident. Such visions are clear attempts by Iblis to lead mankind away from the path of Allah

[16]. The world of the Jinn is one which is both sinister and intriguing. By knowing of this world we can explain many of the mysteries and issues which bother us. By doing this we can avoid the extremes which the people have gone to; nothing being more extreme then worshipping others besides Allah. By learning the Tawheed of Allah, we defend ourselves from these hidden allies of Iblis:

"Indeed he (Iblis) and his tribe watch you from a position where you cannot see them"(Surah Al-A'raf 7:27)

Maybe there is a Jinn sitting in the corner of your room right now, or even one behind you. If so, then how will you deal with this creation of Allah? Learn Islam properly and you will be able to deal with all of Allah's creation - and not just the Jinn. By becoming true Muslims and followers of Islam, the fear of Iblis, Jinns and anything else will leave us - nothing will touch the Believer unless Allah wills.


1 Reported by Muslim - Eng. Trans. Vol. 4, p.1540, No.7134

2 It must be remembered that Iblis is a Jinn and not an Angel. The concept of the Devil being a fallen Angel is from Christianity and not Islam.

3 In fact when The Exorcist was first shown on cinema, it was so scary that many people fainted and one even died!

4 Authentic - Reported by Tirmidhee

5 Whilst Christians invoke the name of Jesus, many Muslims invoke the name of pious Muslim saints! The rituals which are conducted by many Muslims are more akin to voodoo then the exorcism practised by the Prophet and his companions!!

6 Ganesh, the elephant headed deity, seemed to be the biggest drinker! In fact it didn't just stop at milk. At the time of these occurrences, a woman in India decided to see if Ganesh would drink anything else - so she offered him whiskey!! And Lo and behold Ganesh drank the Whiskey!!! Suffice to say, the woman was kicked out of India.

7 The ship which was recovered was more then 50 years old. It subsequently caught alight and was conveniently destroyed.

8 Authentic - Reported by Tirmidhee

9 Reported by Bukhari - Eng. Trans. Vol.7, p.439, No.657

10 Michel de Nostradamus was a famous French soothsayer of the 16th century.

11 Reported by Muslim - Eng. Trans. Vol.4, p.1472, No.6757

12 The classic example of how fortune tellers can be wrong is the case of Diana, Princess of Wales and Dodi Fayed. Both went to see a fortune teller who told Diana that she would live a long and happy life. A few weeks later, on August 31st 1997, Diana and Dodi Fayed were dead. After this the fortune tellers flew for cover, as their evil art showed its decadence.

13 Reported by Muslim - Eng. Trans. Vol.4, p.1211, No.5540

14 Authentic - Reported by Ahmed

15 Ouija boards are so misleading, that people have even managed to get in touch with the spirit of Jack the Ripper!!

16 An informative book on the world of the Jinn is Ibn Taymeeyah's Essay on the Jinn translated by Abu Ameenah Bilal Phillips.

Post Source : Peacetv: A Call Towards Islam

Monday, December 2, 2013


Allah the most merciful has granted us an easy method through which we can make up for some of our shortcomings or mistakes during Salah (prayer). This is done by making two extra prostrations (sujdah/sujood) and this is called Sajdah Sahw in arabic or prostrations of forgetfulness as translated in english. Please note that sajdah sahw is only to compensate for certain (some) mistakes during salah and not all or every mistake.

Brothers and sisters take a few moments to read, some very crucial points are listed..

  1. Doing something extra : for example, doing an extra bow (rukoo’), prostration (sujood), extra standing or sitting etc.
  2. Omitting something: such as omitting an essential part of the prayer, or omitting one of the obligatory parts of the prayer like not sitting after 2 rakats (in a 4 rakat prayer) and directly standing or missing a tashahud etc..
  3. Being uncertain: such as when a person is not sure how many rak’ahs he has prayed, whether it was three or four and similar kinds of mistakes
Our beloved Prophet (ﷺ) said
If any one of you forgets [something in the prayer], let him do two prostrations (Called as sajdah sahw). ( Muslim, 402 )
Abu Huraira (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:
When any one of you stands up to pray, the devil comes to him and confuses him to that he does not know how much he has prayed. If any one of you has such an experience he should perform two prostrations while sitting down (in qa’da). ( Muslim,1159 )
Abdullah Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) said:
The Prophet (ﷺ) named the two prostrations of forgetfulness disgraceful for the devil. ( Abu Dawood, 1020 )
Sajdah sahw is not applicable individually for the one who is praying in a Jamaat behind an Imam.

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reports that
the Prophet (ﷺ) said:
“The imam is selected to be followed; therefore, do not differ with him. When he makes the takbir, (then) make the takbir, when he goes into ruku’, (then) make ruku’. When he says ‘Allah hears him who praises Him (Samiallah huliman hamidah),’ (then) say ‘O Allah, our Lord, to You belongs the Praise. (Rabbana wa lakal hamd)’ When he goes into sajdah, (then) make sajdah. If he prays sitting, then all should be sitting.” ( Muslim; 826, Muwatta Malik; 61, Sunan Al Nasai; 923, Bukhari; 1236 and others )
The above hadith means that one has to follow the Imam even with regards to Sajdah Sahw.

In the case of forgetting or leaving out any of the obligatory pillars of the prayers the sajdah sahw will not compensate for it. The obligatory pillars constitute:

1 Praying being in a state of purity (wudhu and being free from sexual/menstrual discharge. Breaking wind also invalidates the purity)

2 Intention (in your heart and not verbally speaking it out) so as to which prayer are you praying

3 Facing the Qiblah (except during praying a nafil salah during travel or in the case when one cannot determine the qiblah at all)

The Prophet (ﷺ) said to ‘Imraan ibn al Husayn (may Allah be pleased with him): “Pray Standing” ( Bukhari 1/264 #1117 )
4 Beginning the prayer by raising the hands and saying Takbirat-ul-Ihram (saying: Allahu Akbar [Allah is the Greatest] upon starting Prayer).
Then Face the Qiblah and Perform the Takbeer ( Bukhari; 1/178 #793, Muslim; 1/82: #397 )

5 Having Tuma’neenah (tranquility and khushu in each position (posture) of the prayer)

It was narrated from Hudhaifah that:
He saw a man praying (And his bowing and prostration) were lacking. Hudhaifah said to him: ‘For how long have you been praying like this?’
He said: “For forty years.’
He said: ‘You have not been praying for forty years and if you die praying like this, you will have died following a path other than the path of Muhammad (ﷺ). Then he said: ‘It is possible for a man to pray briefly (shortly/quickly), but still do it properly.” ( Sunan an-Nasa'i 1312; Also see Bukhari 2/13, #1313 )

6 Not missing/leaving out single or multiple rakah

7 Not missing a sajdah or rukoo’
Then bow until you are tranquil, then prostrate until you are tranquil ( Bukhari: 1/178, #793 and Muslim: 1/82, #397 )
8Rising from rukoo
then rise until you are tranquil ( Bukhari: 1/178, #793 ), (Muslim: 1/82, #397 )
9Sitting between two prostrations
then rise from the prostration until you are tranquil ( Bukhari: 1/178, #793 ), ( Muslim: 1/82, #397 )

10Covering the awrah (the parts of the body that are compulsory to be covered during salah)

11Sitting for the final tashahud and sending the salaat and salaam upon the prophet (ﷺ)
If you sit during the prayer say; at Tahiyaat liLaah ( Muslim: 4/92, #402 )
Sending the Salaat and Salaam upon the Messenger after the last Tashahhud. The evidence for sending the salaat and salaam (durood ibraahim):
The Hadeeth of Abu Mas’ood al Ansaari ( Muslim: 4/98, #495 )
The Hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed al Khudree. ( Bukhari: 3/215, #6358 )
And Many More......

12Tasleem (saying As-salamu `alaykum warahmatullah on both the shoulders to end the prayer after completing the final tashahud)

The Hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar – may Allah be pleased with him. ( An Nasaa-i: P.227, #1320 ) and Many more

13The following of these pillars in order

First Standing, then bowing, then rising, then prostrating, then sitting between the two prostrations, then prostrating again. ( Fiqh al ‘Ibaadaat by Shaykh ibn ‘Uthaymeen P.132 )

If a person leaves the above obligatory pillars of salah on purpose or forgets then he has to make up for it either by going back to the forgotten pillar or re-doing the Salah.

IMMEDIATELY; It is recorded from al-Mughirah ibn Shu’bah, that
the Prophet (ﷺ) said:
If one of you (in a 3 or 4 rakat prayer) stands after two rak’at (forgetting to sit for the tashadud) and he has not completely stood, then he should sit (i.e if he remembers his mistake before completely standing straight with his spine being upright then he should sit back continuing the tashahud) but If he is already completely standing (and thereafter he remembers his mistake), he should not sit , (rather he should continue the prayer) and he should make two sujood of forgetfulness (before ending the prayer i.e. before making the taslim) ( Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah )
If one realizes that one has made an error in his prayer after he has completed his prayer then immediately as soon as he realizes his mistake, he should make the two sajdahs of ‘sajdah-sahw’ and then say the tasleem as explained below:

Ibn Mas’ood said:
The Prophet led us in prayer and he performed five Rak’ahs (instead of 4 rak’ah). When he turned around after ending the prayer, the people whispered to one another. He said: “What is the matter?” They said: ‘O Prophet of Allah! Has the prayer been increased?’ He replied: “No”. They said: ‘You performed five Rak’ahs’. So, he stood up again and performed two prostrations for forgetfulness, and then, said Salaam (i.e. tasleem). After that, he said: “I am just a human being like you (i.e. I forget)” ( Muslim; 1177, Bukhari 2/22, #317 )
  1. Sajdah Sahw can compensate only for certain mistakes and not All mistakes such as the obligatory pillars of Salah.
  2. Sajdah Sahw insults the shaitan and is a mercy from Allah to help us correct our mistakes.
  3. Sajdah Sahw is fardh in certain cases (forgetting to sit for tashahud, leaving a rak’ah and etc) as explained above
  4. Sajdah Sahw is to be done ONLY once (2 prostrations) at the end of the salah/after the salah (Depending upon the case) to compensate for
ALL THE ERRORS together at once. Meaning, if you made 4 mistakes in your Dhuhr prayer then you have to do sajdah sahw only once and not 4 separate times.

Post Source : Peacetv: A Call Towards Islam